In the world of sports performance, increasing muscle mass as quickly as possible in athletes who are new to their particular sport, is generally regarded highly as a goal along with core stability.
Creatine monohydrate is one of the most well-studied and documented supplements for improving strength gains and muscle mass. Looking at many of the peer reviewed published studies over the last 15 years, I assembled a bibliography of articles that range over a number of subjects, including its use in increasing muscle mass in a relatively short period, the positive effects on depression in women, its effects on elite Brazilian soccer players, its use in older adults, female swimmers.
The studies showed a very statistically reliable result:….an increase in power. The less trained subjects (ie. those who had less than elite fitness) or strength levels consistently showed the greatest increases. The overwhelming studies (over 95%) that were reviewed utilized Creatine Monohydrate as opposed to other Creatine containing compounds. Creatine monohydrate can be used both pre- and post-workout effectively.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2018 May 2. doi: 10.23736/S0022-4707.18.08406-2. [Epub ahead of print]
Creatine monohydrate supplementation during eight weeks of progressive resistance training increases strength in as little as two weeks without reducing markers of muscle damage.
Nutr Hosp. 2017 Feb 1;34(1):204-215. doi: 10.20960/nh.997.
[Article in Spanish; Abstract available in Spanish from the publisher]
Ergogenic aids in sport
Santesteban Moriones V1, Ibáñez Santos J.
Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Sep 15;80(6):439-447. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.11.027. Epub 2015 Dec 15.
Effects of Creatine Monohydrate Augmentation on Brain Metabolic and Network Outcome Measures in Women With Major Depressive Disorder.
Yoon S1, Kim JE1, Hwang J2, Kim TS3, Kang HJ1, Namgung E1, Ban S1, Oh S1, Yang J1, Renshaw PF4, Lyoo IK5.
J Res Med Sci. 2015 Aug;20(8):733-8. doi: 10.4103/1735-1995.168320.
Effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on exercise-induced apoptosis in athletes: A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study.
Rahimi R1, Mirzaei B2, Rahmani-Nia F2, Salehi Z3.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013 Aug 6;10:36. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-10-36. eCollection 2013.
The effects of pre versus post workout supplementation of creatine monohydrate on body composition and strength.
Antonio J1, Ciccone V1.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017 Jun;61(6). doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201600772. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
Creatine and creatine forms intended for sports nutrition.
Andres S1, Ziegenhagen R1, Trefflich I1, Pevny S1, Schultrich K1, Braun H2,3, Schänzer W2, Hirsch-Ernst KI1, Schäfer B1, Lampen A1.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014 Jun 18;11:32. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-11-32. eCollection 2014.
Strength and hypertrophy responses to constant and decreasing rest intervals in trained men using creatine supplementation.
Souza-Junior TP1, Willardson JM, Bloomer R, Leite RD, Fleck SJ, Oliveira PR, Simão R.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2011 Oct 27;8(1):17. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-8-17.
Open Access J Sports Med. 2017 Nov 2;8:213-226. doi: 10.2147/OAJSM.S123529. eCollection 2017.
Effect of creatine supplementation during resistance training on lean tissue mass and muscular strength in older adults: a meta-analysis.
Chilibeck PD1, Kaviani M2, Candow DG3, Zello GA4.
Clin Sci (Lond). 1992 Sep;83(3):367-74.
Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation.
Harris RC1, Söderlund K, Hultman E
J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2007 Mar;47(1):58-64.
Effect of creatine on swimming velocity, body composition and hydrodynamic variables.
Silva AJ1, Machado Reis V, Guidetti L, Bessone Alves F, Mota P, Freitas J, Baldari C.